For #2 MoneyWellSpent can, and has, given you a better answer than I could. As far as the high carnauba blend: It is part of my all natural, non-toxic, shoe polish line. I refer to it as a High Shine paste. Because of the ingredients, when I use the high ratio of carnauba wax in the mixture it makes the paste very hard (almost like dried out paste polish). This allows me to easily control the amount of polish I put on the applicator (cotton cloth or cotton round), and the harder paste comes to a shine faster than a normal paste polish.