According to the Oxford dictionary it's:
[mass noun] a pale green or yellow liqueur made from brandy and aromatic herbs.
a pale yellow or green colour resembling the liqueur chartreuse.2a dish made in a mould using pieces of meat, game, vegetables, or (now most often) fruit in jelly.
Not sure how accurate. This implies that you can choose between a variety of fillings.
So.. every filling containg pieces of meat/game/veggies/fruit in jelly wrapped in cabbage is a Chartreuse, however, every Chartreuse is not wrapped in cabbage? Google also finds dishes like these when googling chartreuse of vegetables (pic by National Geographics), which supports the Oxford dictionary's definition: