Thank you for the interesting information and discussion. Concerning strength of hand welting vs GYW, as usual not one single piece of measured evidence is presented to show that hand welts are stronger than GYW. Let's have some statistics. I have both types of constructions, and my GYW are used very often in a variety of weathers, and to be honest, over the years, I have not had one, not one, case of gemming failure. Hand welted shoes also rely on adhesives to hold them together. Many of my GYW have been worn regularly for more than 25 years without any problems from the insole welting. Other problems yes, but not from that.