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Denim Terminology and Links

Discussion in 'Streetwear and Denim' started by Brian SD, Mar 25, 2005.

  1. Brian SD

    Brian SD Senior member

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    Okay I renamed this topic because I want to start putting in links to places we deem important for things denim. I'll start it off with some galleries of worn jeans.
     
  2. ringring

    ringring Senior member

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    Here's some definitions from Cake's list:

    Acid washing
    The quick definition can be summed up in one word, "horrible" LOL.
    Aka "Snow wash". This technique reared it head up in Italy in the late 80s. Basically you soak your pumice stones in bleach and tumble them with the jeans. Then neutralise.

    Stone washing
    French husband & wife team, Marithe & Francois Girbaud claim to have pioneered this technique of washing jeans in a machine with small pumice stones. Independently, the Japanese jeans company, Edwin also make this claim. The pumice stones are generally taken from southern Italy (the whitest and most expensive), Turkey and Indonesia (darkest and cheapest). Some claim that washing jeans with dark stones give the jeans a 'dirty' look, although this can be countered somewhat with extra rinsing in the laundry.

    Sandblasting
    As it sounds, compressed airguns shoot sand onto jeans to create abrasion. Sometimes a 'tracer' dye is added so that the 'shooter' can more accurately judge the volume and accuracy. Very fast, but quite a clumsy way to achieve fading.

    Microsanding
    Sanding is basically done 3 ways: Sandblasting, as above.
    Machine sanding - just like machines that you'd use to sand a wooden table.
    Handsanding aka Handbrushing - just a piece of folded fine sandpaper.
    All three methods are used in various ways, on the flat (tables, ironing boards), on the dummy (inflatable dummies, sometimes standing, sometimes flat, sometimes 'seated') and various templates can be used to create a 3D effect.
    Any sanding can be enhanced with chemical whiteners.

    Whiskering
    Also known as 'Cat's Whiskers'. These are the crease lines around the crotch. Industrially these can be done with laser, sandblasting, machine sanding, handsanding and abrasive rods. Same techniques are used for 'knee whiskers' (whiskers on the sides of knees) and 'honeycombs' (crease marks on the back of the knee).


    Overdye
    Basically dyeing over the fabric or jeans to add another tone of colour. Most often used is a 'yellowy' overdye to create a 'dirty' look. Also can be applied with spraygun or paintbrush for local colouring (ie. if you wanted just 'dirty knees').
     
  3. Cake

    Cake Well-Known Member

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    Also

    Enzyme wash
    The environmentally friendly way to stone wash jeans, through the application of organic enzymes that eat away at the fabric, i.e. the cellulose. No pumice stones are used. When the desired colour is achieved, the enzymes can be stopped by changing the alkalinity of the bath or its temperature. A final rinsing and softening cycle is next, before the jeans are ready to be sold. Still frowned upon by companies such as Howies, who prefer to use rubberised "Eco" Balls to wash their jeans.
     
  4. Brian SD

    Brian SD Senior member

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    Updated again - thanks for makin it easier on me guys.
     
  5. LA Guy

    LA Guy Opposite Santa Staff Member Admin Moderator

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    RIngring and Cake, thanks for helping out so much. These tems art bandied around all the time, and a lot of people don't really know what they mean (including otherwise informed retailers.)
     
  6. Geowu

    Geowu Senior member

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  7. Brian SD

    Brian SD Senior member

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    That's very interesting, Geowu (about selvage/selvedge). I'd never heard that before.
     
  8. JohnMC

    JohnMC Member

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    .... The "redline" selvage is Levi's signature and was used in all their jeans up to 1976, before Cone Mills sold their shuttle looms (mostly to Japan).
    Not totally correct, Cone Mills still have some of their old shuttle looms and are using those to produce some of the Levis Vintage Clothing repros.
    Levi's were using selvage denim in their 501's up until 1982 A couple of years before LVC was launched I read that Levi's were trying to buy shuttle looms in Japan. http://www.vintagemotorcyclejackets.com/index-denim.htm A good source of info on vintage denim
     
  9. Brian SD

    Brian SD Senior member

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    Thanks John, I just realized that myself while looking through the booklet that coems with LVC jeans.
     
  10. faustian bargain

    faustian bargain Senior member

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    was any progress ever made with the development of colored cotton? several years ago i heard about people working on a strain that was blue, right off the plant.
     
  11. Cake

    Cake Well-Known Member

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    To answer your question, this was something I managed to Google today (came from some obscure report on "genetic seeding", which sounded dodgy enough to warrant a quote):

    Genetically Modified Cotton
    Pioneered by agricultural giant, Monsanto, purveyor of the genetically modified seed. It's current blue cotton programme is aimed at the jeans market ($10 billion in the US and £800 million in the UK) and involves the transfer of a gene from a blue flower to the cotton plant. The product will be commercially available from 2005. Further initiatives will genetically manipulate the cotton plant to impart other natural colours, modify fibre properties and impart pesticide and herbicide resistance.
     
  12. Geowu

    Geowu Senior member

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    nice... hope not to see multicolored jeans in the future... blue is enough.
     
  13. T4phage

    T4phage Senior member

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    They should try inserting the Luciferase gene... from the firefly. They used it as a marker for some GM tobacco plants.
     
  14. T4phage

    T4phage Senior member

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    LHT and RHT After reading some posts on Superfuture (thanks to LA Guy and Brian SD for the link), I am still confused WHY LHT is supposed to be softer? As I mentioned before, my old 45 RPM and Lee 101 in LHT do not feel softer than my Levis repros. However, many people still claim that LHT is softer. I thought that it is only the direction of the weaving that is different. Is there something intrinsic to the looms that weave LHT that makes it softer? The tension?
     
  15. ringring

    ringring Senior member

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    I think LA Guy explains the LH/RH thing very well. It's worth reading his explanations again. It's about the relationship of the direct of the twill weave compared to the twist of the yarn.

    In a world where all things are equal a LH twill woven with Z twist yarn will have a slightly softer feeling than a RH twill woven with Z twist.

    Z twist = right hand twisted yarn - the usual yarn used for denim.
    S twist = left hand twisted yarn.

    In reality things are never equal and you'll find softer RH twills or broken twills. Stone washing, enzymes, silicone, fabric softners etc will all help denims become softer.
     
  16. LA Guy

    LA Guy Opposite Santa Staff Member Admin Moderator

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    ring ring is exactly right. This is why a typical pair of Paper Denims, although made of 3x1 RHT, feels so soft right off the bat.
     
  17. Brian SD

    Brian SD Senior member

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    I'm wearing a pair of jeans right now that is made from half LHT and half RHT. The right leg (LHT) feels softer than the left leg (RHT). That is an example of the exact same materials used in two different weaves (RH and LH) where the RH is more closed and less soft.

    T4, imagine vaccuuming the floor - you push the vaccuum forward and it flattens out the carpet. This is right hand twill. You pull the vaccuum back and it opens and fluffs up the carpet a little. This is left hand twill.
     
  18. LA Guy

    LA Guy Opposite Santa Staff Member Admin Moderator

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    Brian, what pair of jeans is that? I have never seen such a thing. Are the right and left legs ageing differently? This is *really* interesting.
     
  19. Brian SD

    Brian SD Senior member

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    Originally Posted by Brian SD,April 28 2005,13:56
    I'm wearing a pair of jeans right now that is made from half LHT and half RHT. The right leg (LHT) feels softer than the left leg (RHT). That is an example of the exact same materials used in two different weaves (RH and LH) where the RH is more closed and less soft. T4, imagine vaccuuming the floor - you push the vaccuum forward and it flattens out the carpet. This is right hand twill. You pull the vaccuum back and it opens and fluffs up the carpet a little. This is left hand twill.
    Brian, what pair of jeans is that? I have never seen such a thing. Are the right and left legs ageing differently? This is *really* interesting.
    I'll take pictures when the batteries in my camera are charged enough. The front of the right leg is LH, the back of the right leg is RH, the front of the left leg is RH, the back of the left leg is LH. I'll edit this post with pictures ASAP. As for the aging differently, they're pre-washed, but you can still see the difference in texture and abrasion susceptability between the two denims (if thats a word).
     
  20. LA Guy

    LA Guy Opposite Santa Staff Member Admin Moderator

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    What brand is this?
     

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