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Denim Terminology and Links - Page 4

post #46 of 86
Quote:
To go a little further in terms of analogy, and bear withn me because I am not a molecular biologist by any stretch of the imagination.  Most yarns are twisted RH, imagine a DNA strand of denim, if you will.  If you weave this left handed (which is actually pretty close to being the reverse of weaving the yarn right handed) you will break some of the sulfhydryl bonds, and somewhat loosen the RH yarn.  If weave right handed, you twist the yarns in the same direction, resulting in tighter yarns, allowing more sulfhydryl bonds to form.  Yes, yes, this analogy sucks for a number reasons, which we could discuss ad nauseum, but just thought I'd throw it out there for fun., and that you might enjoy it.
L.A. Guy, Excellent.. Thanks, I'm lovin' it. So we can say (in the most general of terms) that LHT is similar to the Z form DNA, whilst RHT is more like the tighter A form. Again, great analogy.
post #47 of 86
Quote:
Quote:
(LA Guy @ April 29 2005,17:20) To go a little further in terms of analogy, and bear withn me because I am not a molecular biologist by any stretch of the imagination.  Most yarns are twisted RH, imagine a DNA strand of denim, if you will.  If you weave this left handed (which is actually pretty close to being the reverse of weaving the yarn right handed) you will break some of the sulfhydryl bonds, and somewhat loosen the RH yarn.  If weave right handed, you twist the yarns in the same direction, resulting in tighter yarns, allowing more sulfhydryl bonds to form.  Yes, yes, this analogy sucks for a number reasons, which we could discuss ad nauseum, but just thought I'd throw it out there for fun., and that you might enjoy it.
L.A. Guy, Excellent..   Thanks, I'm lovin' it. So we can say (in the most general of terms) that LHT is similar to the Z form DNA, whilst RHT is more like the tighter A form.   Again, great analogy.
In the *most* general of terms, yes. Glad you like the analogy. Maybe you can use it in a class if you are teaching (are you? Or did you go over to the dark side?)
post #48 of 86
Quote:
In the *most* general of terms, yes.  Glad you like the analogy.  Maybe you can use it in a class if you are teaching (are you?  Or did you go over to the dark side?)
Does some consultancy on the side matter?
post #49 of 86
I forgot to thank BrianSD for posting the wonderfully descriptive photos...
post #50 of 86
ABRASION Laundries make garments look worn or faded by rubbing off the indigo surface of the fabric. Pumice stones are very frequently used. BLENDED FABRICS Fabrics that are composed of yarns made of a blend of two or more fibres. CALENDERING A mechanical method done by rollers to provide glaze, glossiness, hardness, lustre, sheen and even embossed designs to textile materials. Calendering is usually done to afford a special finish to fabrics, usually not permanent in washing. CARROT Stand for a type of fit. Cut wider at the seat, the trouser narrows towards the bottom hem of the trouser. COLOUR DENIM Denim where the traditional indigo blue has been replaced by other coloured dyestuffs, applied in such a way that they behave in the same way indigo does. It rubs off and fades like indigo. COMBED YARN Extra smooth, fine and strong due to combing of the fibre after carding. Combing removes short fibres and remaining foreign matter and puts the remaining fibres even more parallel than in carding. Combed yarns are always superior to carded yarn. CARDED YARN All cotton yarns are carded. It is the process in which the fibres are brushed up and made more or less parallel and have considerable portions of foreign elements removed and are put in a manageable form known as sliver COTTON Soft fibre obtained from the seed pod of the cotton plant. Was first known in India abt 3000BC and was considered rare and precious. Today it is one of the world's major crops and it is spun into yarn and thread, woven and knitted into fabrics. Different types of cotton have different fibre properties. Alcala; Mexican variety introduced into the USA, medium staple cotton American-Upland; this is the bulk of the crop. Fibre runs from 3/4" to 1/2" American-Pima; a cross between Sea Island and Egyptian. Fine strong cotton, averages 1 3/8" to 1 5/8". China; harsh wiry short staple Egyptian; fine lustrous long staple. Sea-Island; Finest cotton of all. White, silky 1 3/5" staple. Originally grown on small islands off the coasts of the Carolinas and in the Southern lowlands along the coast. DUNGAREE A cotton denim fabric used for sailor's working clothes. DYEING A process of colouring fibres or fabric with either natural or synthetic dyes. Dyes differ in resistance to sunlight, perspiration, washing, gas, alkali, dust, acids, cleaning agents etc. Beam Dyeing; Warps are wound on perforated beams, the dyestuff is forced through the perforations saturating the yarns with colour. Loop Dyeing; an ingenious indigo dyeing system where the ropes pass several consecutive times through the same bath. Dyeing; Method of dyeing yarns that are wound on (specially perforated) cones. The dye solution passes through the centre of the package. Pad Steam; After weaving and desizing the fabric is padded with dyestuff, then squeezed between heavy rollers to remove the excess dyestuff and then the fabric is put through a steam chamber to let the colour develop. Rope Dyeing; dyeing a rope (300-400 ends) of yarns usually in indigo before weaving. After dyeing the yarns in these ropes have to be separated to produce slasher beams which will eventually form the weaving beams. Slasher Dyeing; continuous dyeing and sizing process of the complete warp prior to weaving. Stock Dyeing; Process of dyeing fibres before carding-spinning. DYESTUFF Acid Dye; A type of dye used for animal fibres and PA, seldom used for cotton for it requires a mordant, a substance which acts as binder for the dye. Azoic Dye, see: Naphtol Dye. Indantrene, see: VAT dyes. Indigo: The oldest known VAT dyestuff, formerly obtained from the indigo plant. Now made synthetically. The blue shades produced by indigo cannot be obtained by any other dyestuff. They have a character brilliancy and tone which has made this dyestuff popular for ages. Naphtols (Azoic); Insoluble azo dyes formed on the fibre by coupling a naphtol prepared with diazotized bases or salts of a base. Used principally to obtain fast, brilliant scarlets and reds. Sulphur Dyes; A dye derived from chemicals containing sulphur, fairly resistant to washing, weaker resistance to sunlight. VAT Dye; insoluble dye which is reduced in the process of application to a soluble form, put on the fibre and then oxidised to the original insoluble form. VAT dyes are very resistant to both washing and sunlight. FINISHING The finishing of fabric (loomstate or greige) can consist of desizing, scouring, singeing, mercerising, dyeing, printing, skewing, pre-shrinking and various other additional mechanical treatments like emerizing, sanding brushing, embossing, chintzing or chemical treatments like coating, easy-care, water repellence, anti-bacteria, anti-staining etc. HEMP A low cost plant that grows in most climates. The fibre produced from this plant is difficult to bleach, and comes like jute from just inside the outerbark of the plant. It withstands water better than any other textile plant. ORGANIC COTTON Cotton grown without toxic chemicals, from land that has been free of these chemicals for a number of years. RIP STOP A light weight fabric, where large rip yarns, at regular intervals in both warp and weft directions, stop tears without adding additional weight to the fabric. SLUB YARN A yarn that shows, intentionally, thick and thin places. The length and thickness of these slubs can be predetermined. And can either repeat at regular intervals or be random. -------------------- extracted from http://www.ucospw.be/site.html
post #51 of 86
Does anyone know the truth re Cone selling off their looms? Lynne Downey, from Levi's, and Stefano Aldighieri, who bought Levi's denim, then went off to Seven, reckon Cone merely stuck their shuttle looms in the basement. Evisu claimed to have bought 'Levi's looms' - but of course Kurabo sourced their early denim, and they are said to use mostly Japanese-built looms. I know Cone are actively trying to get more selvage business, and ring-ring business, so I don't know if the claim that they have few narrow looms left is true.
post #52 of 86
I've no idea how many shuttle looms Cone have left, but it would make sense that domestically made looms were widely used to produce selvedge denim in Japan. Toyota made them.
post #53 of 86
You know, pics would reallly help a lot. Especially for identifying ring-spun and dual-ring. Sorry I'm in no position to make demands as I'm still a denim newbie. I do have a digicam and a single pair of shitty Gap jeans. If anyone wants me to take pictures of the denim in those jeans I'll gladly do it. Once I educate myself on the finer points of denim-obsession I'll go and buy a pair of APCs or PDCs.
post #54 of 86
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You know, pics would reallly help a lot. Especially for identifying ring-spun and dual-ring.
I'd like to see this, too, if someone would be so kind.
post #55 of 86
Sure. that's easy... The pic above shows several things. A chainstitched hem, a red selvage edge, double ring-spun (you can see, the thread goes thick and thin alternately in both directions, warp and weft. If it was only in one of them, it would be just plain ring-spun). The pic above shows, besides dry denim painted with natural indigo and more chainstitchings, an easy way to notice double ring-spun: the warp and weft vary greatly in thickness (even more than they normaly would, this one is exceptional.)
post #56 of 86
Thanks for the pics Geowu. Here's my PDC GTO 1-Year which are dual-ring spun. And for reference, a Gap pair, presumably open-ended spun. The second pair that you have is PDC, correct? It appears that your pair shows significantly more variation in warp and weft thickness than my pair. To be honest, I'm not totally sure I can tell the difference between my dual-ring PDC and the Gap other than by touch -- the PDC feels infinitely softer and smoother. To my untrained eyes, the warp/weft thickness variation looks to be similar in both pairs. Am I missing something? I think I understand selvedge though. Here are my PDC again, which I believe is not selvedge. So is the easy way to spot selvedge is the single-line stitching on yours? Do all non-selvedge have this wide "ladder" stitching?
post #57 of 86
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So is the easy way to spot selvedge is the single-line stitching on yours? Do all non-selvedge have this wide "ladder" stitching?
The easiest way to spot selvedge is the neat white trim, along with the redline/greenline/what have you running through it. And not all non-selvedge has that stitching. Earnest Sewn, for example, has a two-color double-needle seam. A pair of cheap 517s I bought simply has two versions of PDC's outseam (don't know the technical term). In the case of the 517s, it just helps give away the cheap look of the jeans.
post #58 of 86
I think both GAP and PDC are using double ring-spun denim. Those jeans I posted neither are mine. The first is Howies and the second is Samurai from Japan.
post #59 of 86
Thanks very much for the pictures. There's still so much to learn.
post #60 of 86
Thread Starter 
Yep those GAPs are Ring/Ring
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