I've always thought of them as a "nice touch" rather than a useful thing. Dressing well is about the details and we don't really have many places in which to add some tasteful flair. Working/surgeon's cuffs just shows (to anyone who knows to look) that you have spent some attention and money on your suit. Some folks wear the last button undone for a little bit of flash. I think it might be a bit gauche.. but I admit I have done it.
When I had my first suit made with surgeons cuffs I read about their history and from what I recall surgeons asked to have them on their suits to keep their cuffs clean in surgery. This effectually separated them from the lower-classes and was a sign of stature.
I think that last bit is where they still have a purpose, if any.
Of course nowadays all of the cheaper fashion-forward brands (Charles Tyrwhitt and Suit Supply off the top of my head) are aware that this is a detail people want, and all of their suits have it. So it's no longer a sign of having spent money or attention.
Sort of like spoilers on cars. Believe it or not, there was once a time when they only appeared on cars that actually needed them to stay planted on the road while cornering at speed. But once people associated them with "cool" cars they started appearing on everything.
Anyway, people will need to come up with a new dog whistle to discreetly show off how special their high-end suits are, because surgeon's cuffs no longer do it.