What are the pros and cons of, and reasons for using, each of the combinations of sleeve cap/armhole shown above?
None of these has what I would term "pros" or "cons". Each has uses for fitting various shapes of people. What you have illustrated are generally considered women's patterns due to the shape of your sleeve cap. The first three are merely quantitative variations upon the same style. The fourth one down will work as long as the person is standing with arms down. As soon as the arms are lifted and brought forward, the sleeve will rip out of the armhole. Your very last image, unless you are showing the rear of a shirt, is non-functional. Although this is quite a rough drawing produced as a sales aid for stores selling M-T-M shirts (which they invariably term "custom"), the pattern pieces are correctly shaped for a man. The "custom" designation is incorrect insofar as what I consider to be custom. P.S.: Uriahheep - still awaiting a response to my inquiry of your reasons for your previous post about my college days.