The actual sole is sewn to the insole, by hand or a machine. Then you attach the final layer(s) to this construction, who builds up the basement.
So, if you do not have a cobbler on hand, who is familiar with this technique, he can remove the pegged layer, grounds down the pegs and helps himself out with a glue job.
On one of my shoes, the pegs loosened a bit(after 12 years). They had a aftermarket rubber sole installed. I tested this version, but didn't like. So I was intended to wear the rubber down etc., etc..
In this case we had to decide, if i will do a full repair, what would have required, doing the pegs, twice on the damaged shoe. This is not cost effective and more of a cosmetic touch for the final result.
So, we decided on the interim solution. Doing the glue job now, and a full refurbish later.
Maftei told me that re-soling a holzgenagelt sole is much easier than a welted sole.
If, you know how to do it, it is. Seriously, what Maftei is referring to: When you resole a wood pegged shoe. The pegs are not necessarily put in the same holes. That's what I understood, discussing the recent repair job. At least you can peg one layer, as it would have been in my case, and then peg the next layer on top of it. Meaning, you do not have to fiddle around with stitching holes. Janne Melkersson once mentioned. He estimates the time gap between the two techniques around one hour in the initial setup(1,5 to 2,5 hours). I'll ask Christian, how long it took him to peg my shoes. Note: He is not on the level of Maftei Maybe Marcell or Janne himself could shed some light onto it. Let alone, they held up a workshop together, recently.