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I'm a big Barbour fan. A classic beadle with their snap/zip in liner will stand up to about everything. I also like that is a pretty casual look, but I've also seen them worn with dress pants/suits and it works.
Not going to work for a New England/New York winter
@thefastlife some of the recent Woolrich parkas are borderline affordable on that budget, particularly if you can find a sale
I would probably just recommend heading to Woodbury Commons and trying a bunch of stuff on, could probably find a nice wool at NMLC, RL, Zegna, etc.