Here's my more detailed response. First, every one of the suggestions people have made so far are very good, IMO. You would not go wrong with any of them. Let me just add some more that you might want to consider. (All of these should be within your budget, or at least very close.)
There are three scents that I think of in my own personal idiom as the trio of classic masculines. Chanel PM is from 1955. The latter two are from the mid-'60s. (They've been reformulated, of course, but they still retain an old-school masculine elegance.)
1. Chanel pour Monsieur
2. Dior Eau Sauvage--utterly classic citrus/herbal/woody accord. Longevity leaves a little bit to be desired, but otherwise a great scent.
3. Guerlain Habit Rouge--powdery and sweet, at a stage in its development it is reminiscent of an orange creamsicle.
Then some more modern ones, in no particular order.
1. Guerlain--L'Instant pour Homme. This is a warm, spicy scent with a pleasant cocoa note. Understated and elegant.
2. Parfums de Nicolai--New York. This is a modern take on a classic genre of perfumery (the chypre). The best of the old and new worlds of perfumery.
3. Etat Libre d'Orange--Je Suis un Homme. ELdO have a well-deserved réputation for making weird scents, but they also make some classics. This is one of them. It's a version of the classic cologne style, with sharp citrus and herbal notes. It's just a little bit boozy and leathery. As the name suggests, very much a masculine, but not overpoweringly so (like Antaeus is, for example.)
4. Lalique--Encre Noire. A straightforward vetiver scent, quite masculine. (Guerlain Vetiver is also an excellent vetiver--I think Thomas mentioned it.)
6. Acqua di Parma--Colonia, Colonia Assoluta, Colonia Intensa. All three of these are utterly classic masculines.
7. Dior Homme. More on the feminine side of masculine, it's powdery and smells a little bit like lipstick. I know that probably doesn't sound great, but it's a really striking scent and worth checking out.