Probably no quantifiable way, but it is most certainly a real thing.
Obviously, "career suicide" is over the top, but I have absolutely been victim of the "out of touch" moniker for wearing suits to an office where shirt and tie (truly appalling, I know) was the norm. The most galling of it all was that this was supposedly a professional conservative environment lol.
Note: the alligator cowboy boots did NOT go over well there on casual friday!
Along those lines ... kinda ...
I work in finance but in a more business casual setting because it isn't a client facing role and blah, blah, blah. Most people will just wear a button down, and thankfully no tie - definitely no jacket.
I'll wear the pretty standard SC, shirt and tie get up most of the time and sometimes forgo the tie on a Friday or when the weather keeps getting hotter and I switch over the linen shirts and more casual jackets, or no jacket at all.
I've been dressing this way for a while now so I don't hear any comments unless it's from someone new, but way too many times I'd be dressed like this and someone would ask where I am interviewing.
It's like ... hopefully nowhere, since I'm not dressed for it.