since you were discussing this elsewhere
A core hypothesis in developmental theory predicts that genetic influences on intelligence and academic achievement are suppressed under conditions of socioeconomic privation and more fully realized under conditions of socioeconomic advantage: a Gene × Childhood Socioeconomic Status (SES) interaction. Tests of this hypothesis have produced apparently inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis of tests of Gene × SES interaction on intelligence and academic-achievement test scores, allowing for stratification by nation (United States vs. non–United States), and we conducted rigorous tests for publication bias and between-studies heterogeneity. In U.S. studies, we found clear support for moderately sized Gene × SES effects. In studies from Western Europe and Australia, where social policies ensure more uniform access to high-quality education and health care, Gene × SES effects were zero or reversed.
We thank the following individuals for providing us with results from reanalyzed data: Juliana Gottschling, Kristen Jacobson, Robert Kirkpatrick, William Kremen, Matt McGue, Robert Plomin, Sophie van der Sluis, Marion Spengler, and Maciej Trzaskowski.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with respect to their authorship or the publication of this article.
Funding The Population Research Center at the University of Texas is supported by National Institutes of Health Grant No. R24HD042849. Portions of this article were prepared while E. M. Tucker-Drob was supported as a Visiting Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation.