OK, here's my philosophy: There are the three principles of concord, contrast, and conflict.
Concord: Things go together because of their similarities. Let's say for example you changed the shirt to a solid lilac as mentioned, a solid navy tie, and put in a white pocket square with purple trim around it. This would be a very basic look where everything kind of went together.
Contrast: Things go together because of their differences. This is what you were going for. Sometimes it's something unexpected, which is fun, but sometimes it's because something stands out that it gets noticed.
Conflict: Things don't go together because they're too similar to be that different. A typical example is a dark navy with black—they're too similar to be that different. Things that can conflict include scale, color, pattern, and attitude.
To expand on that a bit, the reason the orange pocket square "pops" but dosen't look out of place, is because it is opposite blue on the color wheel:
Things that are across from each other on the color wheel provide astetically (arg with the spelling...) pleasing levels of contrast. Purple and yellow, orange and blue, red and green, are all good. Colors that are next to each other on the color wheel will complement each other - they will look like they "fit" together but will not provide contrast.
You stumbled upon the orange pocket square with blue blazer, by chance it seems, but in the future if you are conscious of appropriately contrasted colors, you can more effectively assemble your outfits.
Unfortunately there is no "pattern wheel" for which you could do the same. But I would stick to 2 patterns in your outfits. Consider going to solid colored ties (which can still be bold and beautiful) which will open up your options for shirts and pocket squares. I personally find myself drawn to things with "fine" patterns and often have to force myself to focus on more simple appearing, but well made, pieces.
I'd say, that at 22, you should really consider steering clear of peaked lapels. PERSONALLY, I find them inappropriately formal for almost any occasion.
EDIT, also a strategy to avoid the orange pocket square becoming the sole focal point of the piece would be to bring a small amount of orange into the outfit somewhere else (could be tie, could be shirt, etc). But smallllllllllllllllll is the key.