After slavery until the 1950s it was federal government policy to keep blacks segregated, uneducated and impoverished. Until the late 1960s this was also state and local government policy. Depending on the area it is debatable how much these practices had become intertwined with American culture and customs and if and when this changed.
The cause of the problem should have far less influence on this discussion than you think. The government can't fix it.
Whether racism is a large or small part of the problem, the change will still have to come from within black communities. Racism doesn't cause epidemic levels of murder in black communities. Neither does poverty, otherwise we'd see somewhat similar crime rates in other poor communities, but we don't see anything that even approaches a fraction of the crime rate in poor black neighborhoods.
The only political solution to the problem is acknowledging that the government can't fix it, and claiming to be a victim or telling others they're not responsible for their actions doesn't lift people out of poverty, but it perpetuates it.
Edited by Rumpelstiltskin - 9/1/16 at 8:32am