Probably not in the sense we're thinking. Again, before quite recently, you went to a maker for something particular... Hermes for a saddle, LV for luggage, Prada for a walrus steamer trunk. Burberry for a trench, etc. The idea of going to a brand with a whole aesthetic is quite new.
My guess would be that these early places you mention would either be haberdasheries (Sulka, mentioned earlier), or individual menswear tailors making a particular shirt, suit, etc. So, we've probably covered about everything...
Well, I thought as much. Obviously, some modern brands have evolved from such makers (A&F is from 1893), so I was wondering if any of them could make the list, even if they are now defunct.
(If the internet and their marketing are to be believed, Meyer & Mortimer made Beau Brummel's trousers, i.e. the first modern trousers for modern suits. If true, that certainly suggests a lot of influence, but I don't know if they are (or were) a "brand.")