I'm 5'2" and 147 lbs (so generally a 34x27.5-ish). Any suggestions for decent (preferably <$50, but definitely <$100) jeans that either come in that size or will look good when hemmed to that length?
You could try Banana Republic and Lucky Brand. Both run under $100 and fit well on short men. Make sure to wear straight or boot cut. Never relaxed fit or skinny jeans. Also, a great alternative to jeans are slim fit chinos, like the Emerson chinos from BR or colored slim fit denim from PacSun.
Also, don't worry if you can't find your exact inseam length. If you find a pair that fits well but is a little bit too long (which is common for us short guys), just buy them and have your dry cleaner hem them. It's like $15 and totally worth it.