Originally Posted by Nosu3
Monkeys aren't humans so I'm not interested in those studies when discussing effect on humans. The type of possible damage would not be able to be seen in an MRI (I'm not talking about extensive brain damage that would be visible in a scan). The effects vary greatly between people depending on their biological make-up. It cannot be generalized (especially with the variety of chemicals in the herb) to have a non-harmful effect on everyone. I'm not convinced for the countless amount of people who developed mental illness right after marijuana use, that the marijuana had nothing to do with it.Warning: Spoiler! (Click to show)
Cannabis-induced depersonalization disorder in adolescence.
Hürlimann F, Kupferschmid S, Simon AE.
University Hospital of Psychiatry, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
We present a case series of 6 patients who developed persistent depersonalization disorder in adolescence after consuming cannabis. In 2 of these cases, the illness course was severely disabling. Within the growing body of literature that investigates the effects of cannabis use on mental health, the association between cannabis and depersonalization disorder is widely neglected. We review the clinical characteristics of this disorder and summarize the neurobiological evidence relating it to cannabis use. This case series extends awareness about the potentially detrimental effect of cannabis use in young individuals beyond its well-documented relationship with psychosis and other psychological sequelae.
Cannabis-induced bipolar disorder with psychotic features: a case report.
Khan MA, Akella S.
Staff Psychiatrist at the Greater Binghamton Health Center, Binghamton, New York; fourth year student, New York College of Osteopathic Medicine, New York, New York.
There has been considerable debate regarding the causal relationship between chronic cannabis abuse and psychiatric disorders. Clinicians agree that cannabis use can cause acute adverse mental effects that mimic psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Although there is good evidence to support this, the connections are complex and not fully understood.As the research in the endocannabinoid system is emerging, the neurobiological effects of cannabis are being evaluated in the development of psychiatric illness for those individuals who may be genetically vulnerable. Here we present a case of a college student who initially suffered from an acute psychotic breakdown secondary to cannabis abuse that manifested into bipolar disorder with psychosis.
[Cannabis and psychosis: search of a causal link through a critical and systematic review].
[Article in French]
Le Bec PY, Fatséas M, Denis C, Lavie E, Auriacombe M.
Laboratoire de psychiatrie, EA4139, faculté de médecine Victor-Pachon, institut fédératif de recherche en santé publique, Inserm-IFR no 99, université Victor-Segalen Bordeaux-2, Bordeaux, France.
Together, the seven studies were all prospective cohorts and represented 50,275 human subjects. There were three European studies (from Sweden, Holland and Germany), one from New Zealand and one from Australia. Only one study of the seven did not show a significant association between cannabis consumption and increase of the risk of developing a psychosis. However, this study had some bias, such as low level of cannabis use and the lack of evaluation of cannabis use after inclusion. For the six other studies, data show the existence of a significant association between cannabis use and psychotic disorders (with an increased risk between 1.2 and 2.8 in Zammit et al.'s study), particularly among vulnerable individuals (that is with a prepsychotic state at the time of inclusion). Therefore, all the studies that assessed a dose-effect relationship showed this link between cannabis use and the emergence of psychosis or psychotic symptoms. The fact that all causal criteria were present in the studies suggests that cannabis use may be an independent risk factor for the development of psychosis. Results seem to be more consistent for vulnerable individuals with the hypothesis that cannabis use may precipitate psychosis, notably among vulnerable subjects. In particular, early onset of cannabis use during adolescence should be an environmental stressor that interacts with a genetic predisposition to induce a psychotic disorder.
The objective of this article was to examine whether cannabis use can be an independent risk factor for chronic psychotic disorders, by using established criteria of causality. Data extracted from the selected studies showed that cannabis use may be an independent risk factor for the development of psychotic disorders. Early screening of the vulnerability to psychotic disorder should permit improved focus on prevention and information about the specific risks related to cannabis use among this population.
[Depersonalization after withdrawal from cannabis usage].
[Article in Hebrew]
Shufman E, Lerner A, Witztum E.
Jerusalem Institute for Treatment of Substance Abuse and Co-Morbidity, Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center, Jerusalem.
The phenomenon of depersonalization during cannabis usage (intoxication) is commonly known. However, its appearance after drug stoppage is relatively unknown. This article reviews the literature on depersonalization after cannabis withdrawal and discusses three representing cases demonstrating the severity of the problem. Clinical features are described as well as effects on functioning and the long-term nature of this disorder. The treatment approach in each case is also presented.