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post #811 of 1310
fear not, snake, my friend was able to take some shots of the Ring of Fire.

post #812 of 1310
post #813 of 1310

has anyone watched melancholia? thoughts? I enjoyed Act 1, Act 2 not so much

post #814 of 1310
I quite liked it except for the beggining and the end. Otherwise I'm not really a Lars Von Trier fan, although I really like Breaking the Waves.
post #815 of 1310

Really the first 5 minutes are incredible!  Those shots, wow. Reminded me a lot of 2001. Also I'm a fan of Wagner.

Originally Posted by JuyLe View Post

I quite liked it except for the beggining and the end. Otherwise I'm not really a Lars Von Trier fan, although I really like Breaking the Waves.
post #816 of 1310
I really liked the use of Wagner as well.
post #817 of 1310
Thread Starter 
Speaking of Lars Von Trier, has anyone seen his miniserie Riget ?

post #818 of 1310
post #819 of 1310
post #820 of 1310
"Do you have this bigger? I'd like to read it..."

right click and open in new page/tab. still smaller than average text but it should do
post #821 of 1310
modal system in Persian music, representing a level of organization at which a certain number of melodic types (gūšas) are regrouped and ordered in relation to a dominant mode (māya). ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA (Click to show)
DASTGĀH, modal system in Persian music, representing a level of organization at which a certain number of melodic types (gūšas) are regrouped and ordered in relation to a dominant mode (māya). Each dastgāh takes its name from this dominant mode, which is always played in the introductory parts. For example, dastgāh-eČahārgāh comprises not only several gūšas belonging to the mode Čahārgāh but also gūšas in modes that are both closely (Zābol, Ḥeṣār) and distantly (Moḵālef) related, which are played before the conclusion (forūd) in the initial mode. The term dastgāh is thus somewhat ambiguous: “The expression dastgâh-e chahârgâh . . . means either the major unitary modal complex chahârgâh or a whole set of gushes traditionally performed with chahârgâh at their head as the principal modal nucleus” (Powers, p. 426). Theoretically Čahārgāh can be correctly labeled a dastgāh only to the extent that it is composite, that is, comprises a minimal number of varying modal elements; without these elements it must be considered either a maqām (as Ḵāleqī suggested, pp. 127-28) or a simple mode (māya).

According to some practicing musicians (personal communication), the etymology of the term dastgāh can be associated with the idea of “the position (gāh) of the hand (dast) [on the neck of the instrument],” that is, the scale, for a similar idea of position appears in the names of modes like Dogāh and Segāh. It is more appropriate to translate it as “system,” however, for the dastgāh is first and foremost a collection of discrete and heterogeneous elements organized into a hierarchy that is entirely coherent though nevertheless flexible

The defining features of the dastgāh are thus a certain modal variety subjected to a course of development (sayr) that is determined by the preestablished order of sequences, or gūšas. This order can, however, vary within certain limits, depending on the repertoire or the taste of the interpreter. This definition is equally applicable to the āvāz (q.v.), which is, however, less developed and can itself be included in a dastgāh (e.g., Bayāt-e Kord, which can be played separately or as part of dastgāh-e Šūr). The extended version of a dastgāh like Šūr may encompass as many as fifty gūšas (During, 1991), a dozen of which are the most important; an āvāz like Bayāt-e Kord, on the other hand, may include only about seven gūšas, of which three are essential. Other āvāzes, like Bayāt-e Eṣfahān in its extended versions (Maʿrūfī, s.v.), could theoretically also be labeled dastgāh.

The overall structure of a dastgāh consists of three main parts corresponding to blocs of gūšas: the introductory sequence (darāmad, q.v.) or sequences, which are developed in the fundamental mode (māya, maqām); the sections comprising modulations or transpositions; and the rapid return (forūd) to the initial mode. In general there is a gradual progression up the scale, while the return is more rapid, and the ambitus of the melodies is progressively expanded within each section (Nettl, pp. 21-22). In principle the interpreter is always free to determine the content of each dastgāh and to modify, up to a point, the order of the gūšas, but in practice certain dastgāhs (or āvāzes), like Šūr and Homāyūn, seem to permit greater liberty than do others, like Čahārgāh and Rāst-Panjgāh, which are more standardized (Nettl, pp. 105-06).

Although there are twelve dastgāhs and āvāzes, they represent only six or seven scales (During, 1984, p. 105; idem, 1991, passim), in Rūḥ-Allāh Ḵāleqī’s view only five (p. 127). In certain instances the features distinguishing dastgāhs are purely structural (pauses, īst; variable notes; concluding notes; etc.) and connected with motifs (conclusion, or forūd; introduction; etc.). Dastgāhs can also be distinguished by such other characteristics as the sequence of modulations, the diapason, or the dominant chord (e.g., in the lower register for the dastgāhs, in the upper register for the āvāzes). All these elements are involved in the definition of “mode” in the broad sense, particularly in eastern music (Powers, pp. 434, 437). Despite their differentiating features, the dastgāhs are by no means closed systems but share certain gūšas among them: For example, the gūša Jāmadarān is played with different adaptations in Bayāt-e Eṣfahān, Afšārī, Homāyūn, and Bayāt-e Tork (During, 1984, p. 142). In principle each dastgāh has an expressive coloration, an individual ethos (Joneydī, pp. 218-22), but it cannot always be characterized in a consistent manner. The definition thus remains more fluid and general because the ethos depends in large part on the interpretation. It is nevertheless agreed that Navā is rather serene and meditative, Čahārgāh martial, Māhūr cheerful or majestic, Šūr melancholy, and Homāyūn pathetic; the characters of the other dastgāhs are less settled.

Both the term dastgāh and the musical form itself are indigenous to Persian (and Azerī) music and were no doubt elaborated during the revival of traditional music in the 19th century. The term is found in an Azerī work of 1301/1884 (Safarova) and, in about 1287/1870, in an unpublished list of terms compiled by Malek-Manṣūrzāda in Baku. The older term that comes closest to it is āvāz (Ṣafī-al-Dīn Ormavī, 13th century), and, according to Ḵāleqī (p. 125), when these āvāzes were expanded they were called dastgāhs. The twelve were thus assembled: seven dastgāhs (Šūr, Segāh, Čahārgāh, Māhūr, Homāyūn, Navā, and Rāst-Panjgāh) and five āvāzes (Abū ʿAṭā, Bayāt-e Tork, Afšārī, Daštī, Bayāt-e Eṣfahān). The first four of these āvāzes (to which Bayāt-e Kord is sometimes added) are considered to have been derived from Šūrand the last from Homāyūn. Among all the dastgāhs and āvāzes Šūr is the most significant, both because of its scope and because it is the most familiar (Ḵāleqī, p. 129).

In the Azerbaijan tradition, which is very close to the Persian tradition in this respect, twelve dastgāhs (or principal maqāms) were recognized, seven of them essential (Rāst, Šūr, Segāh, Čahārgāh, Māhūr, Bayāt-e Šīrāz, Homāyūn), the rest less important (Šūštar, Bayāt-e Kord, Bayāt-e Qājār, Navā-Nīšāpūr, Rahāb). To these should be added about ten modes (moqāms) and fifteen subsidiary modes (šoʿbas; During, 1988, pp. 38-39; cf. pp. 193-98 for information from earlier periods).

Despite all the changes that Persian music has undergone (and despite internal modifications in the dastgāhs), the system of twelve dastgāhs and āvāzes has remained generally the same as when it was codified by the masters of the last century, in particular Mīrzā ʿAbd-Allāh (d. 1337/1918, q.v.). No new dastgāh or large gūša has been devised since that codification. When an āvāz or dastgāh has been further developed, it has almost always been through borrowing materials from other dastgāhs, rather than through invention, and the rare gūšas that have since been added to the traditional corpus (radīf) are only melodies or variations that present no novelty from a modal point of view. From this remarkable stability it can be deduced that the system has achieved “canonical” status in Persia (though perhaps less so in Azerbaijan), comparable to that of the twelve maqāms and twenty-four šoʿbas that prevailed between the 14th and 17th centuries; the breaking down and reassembling of that material produced the present system of dastgāhs.

Bibliography: N. Caron and D. Safvate, Iran, Paris, 1966.

J. During, La musique iranienne. Tradition et évolution, Paris, 1984.

Idem, La musique traditionelle de l’Azerbâyjân et la science des muqâms, Baden-Baden, 1988.

Idem, Le répertoire-modèle de la musique persane. Radif de târ et de setâr de Mirzâ ʿAbdollâh, Tehran, 1370 Š./1991.

Idem, Z. Mirabdolbaghi, and D. Safvat, The Art of Persian Music, Wahington, D.C., 1991.

Moḥammad-Naṣīr Forṣat Sīrāzī (Forṣat-al-Dawla), Boḥūr al-alḥān dar ʿelm-e mūsīqī wa nesbat-e ān bā ʿarūzµ, ed. M.-Q. Ṣāleḥ Rāmsarī, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1354 Š./1975.

F. Joneydī, Zamīna-ye šenāḵt-e musīqī-e īrānī, Tehran, 1361 Š./1982.

R. Ḵāleqī, Naẓar-ī be mūsīqī, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1362 Š./1983.

K. Khatschi, Der Radif, Regensburg, Germany, 1962.

M. Maʿrūfī, Radīf-e haft dastgāh-e mūsīqī-e īrānī/Les systèmes de la musique traditionnelle iranienne (radif), Tehran, 1352 Š./1973.

M.-T. Masʿūdīya, Āvāz-e Šūr, Regensburg, Germany, 1968.

Idem, Radīf-e āvāzī-e mūsīqī-e īrānī/Radif vocal de la musique iranienne, Tehran, 1357 Š./1978.

Nettl, The Radif of Persian Music. Studies of Structures and Cultural Context, Champaign, Ill., 1987.

H. Powers, “Mode,” in S. Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London, 1980.

Z. Safarova, “Traktat Mir Mohsen Navvaba ‘Vizuhul agram’” (The treatise of Mīr Moḥsen Nawwāb “Vizuhul agram”), in Traditsii muzykalnykh kultur. Narodov Blizhnego Vostoka i Sovremennosti (Traditions of musical culture. The peoples of the Near East and the present), Moscow, 1987, pp. 124-28.


(Jean During)

Originally Published: December 15, 1994

Last Updated: November 18, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. VII, Fasc. 1, pp. 104-105

Dastgāh (Persian: دستگاه‎) is a musical modal system in traditional Persian art music. Persian art music consists of twelve principal musical modal systems or dastgāhs; in spite of 50 or more extant dastgāhs, theorists generally refer to a set of twelve principal ones. A dastgāh is a melody type on the basis of which a performer produces extemporised pieces.
Wikipedia (Click to show)
Each dastgāh consists of seven basic notes, plus several variable notes used for ornamentation and modulation. Each dastgāh is a certain modal variety subject to a course of development (sayr) that is determined by the pre-established order of sequences, and revolves around 365 central nuclear melodies known as gushehs (each of these melodies being a gusheh) which the individual musician comes to know through experience and absorption. This process of centonization is personal, and it is a tradition of great subtlety and depth. The full collection of gushehs in all dastgāhs is referred to as the radif. During the meeting of The Inter-governmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Heritage of the United Nations, held between 28 September – 2 October 2009 in Abu Dhabi, radifs were officially registered on the UNESCO List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.[1][2][3][4]

The dastgāh system has been a major influence in the maqam system in the Arabic music, both of which are deeply rooted in the Sassanid Persia's melodies which entered into the Islamic world following the Arab conquest of Iran in the 7th century.
The system of twelve dastgāhs and gushehs has remained nearly the same as it was codified by the music masters of the nineteenth century, in particular Mîrzā Abdollāh Farāhāni (1843–1918). No new dastgāh or large gusheh has been devised since that codification. When in the modern times an āvāz or dastgāh has been developed, it has almost always been through borrowings from the extant dastgāhs and gushehs, rather than through unqualified invention. From this remarkable stability one may infer that the system must have achieved "canonical" status in Iran.[citation needed]

The terminology of Dastgāh

The term dastgāh has often been compared to the musical mode in Western musicology. This however does not reflect the correct meaning of the term. The term can be described by noting that a dastgāh is usually the name of the initial mode of a piece of music being played which is referred to again and again and moreover a dastgāh identifies a group of modes which are grouped together according to tradition. In short, a dastgāh is both the collective title of a grouping of modes as well as the initial mode of each group.[5]
According to musicians themselves, the etymology of the term dastgāh is associated with “the position (gāh) of the hand (dast) [on the neck of the instrument],” The Persian term dastgah can be translated as "system," and dastgāh is then "first and foremost a collection of discrete and heterogeneous elements organized into a hierarchy that is entirely coherent though nevertheless flexible."[6]
In conventional classifications of Persian music, Abu-ata, Dashti, Afshari, and Bayat-e-tork are considered to be sub-classes of Shur dastgāh. Likewise, Bayat-e-esfahan is defined as a sub-class of Homayoon, reducing the number of principal Dastgahs to a total of seven. The sub-classes in the conventional system are referred to as "Avaz."

The Seven Dastgahs

The following is a list of the twelve dastgāhs:
  • Se'gāh ("third place")
  • Chahār'gāh ("fourth place")
  • Rāst-Panj'gāh ("fifth place")
  • Šur
    Bayāt-e Tork
  • Māhur
  • Homāyoun
  • Navā

—Note that in some cases the sub-classes (āvāz) are counted as individual Dastgāh, yet this contradicts technicalities in Iranian Music.


^ The Radif of Iranian music: Inscribed in 2009 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, UNESCO.
^ Noruz and Iranian radifs registered on UNESCO list, Tehran Times, 1 October 2009, [1].
^ Persian music, Nowruz make it into UN heritage list, Press TV, 1 October 2009, [2].
^ Nowruz became international, in Persian, BBC Persian, Wednesday, 30 September 2009, [3].
^ (Farhat 2004) p.19.^ (During 1996)

I don't usually care for mixing of Western classical and Eastern traditional as I feel it usually ends up being an Orientalist circus, but this seemed quite nice.

The scale of Esfahan is similar to the Western harmonic minor scale with the sixth degree raised a quarter tone. The shahed is the fourth degree and the sixth degree is the ist (the note of stop, ist, is debated among theorists).
post #822 of 1310
i personally hated melancholia, but it did compel me to read the black swan for some reason.

post #823 of 1310
A close friend of mine made a music video for the Pet Shop Boys
post #824 of 1310

Seriously: Ahab doesn't speak for a fuckin eternity; the entire crew just sorta watches this dude creep like a skeleton, pickin on Starbuck (future enterprise) and being a misanthropic dick. Then he gets 'em drunk and then they're all down to kill some random white whale that only the natives ("cannibals") have any sort of descriptive knowledge about.

It's all awesome. Well, I need to finish it and all; but it's great and fuck you if not.

post #825 of 1310
Agreed. Peeps might also enjoy Moby Dude...


One Acts - Moby Dude from National Cathedral School on Vimeo.

Ooh -- I also just unearthed one of the few remaining copies of Wes Anderson's first and only short story, published in UT's student journal back in the day. The protagonist? Some dude named Max Fischer. I'll try to scan it or something if there's any interest.
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