Bologna construction is what we call 'bag' construction...simply means that the upper assembly is made complete before the last is inserted. There is no insole, therefore is very flexible. It is easy to resole; any repair shop with a McKay will work, although few stock pre-flex outsoles, so will probably be stiffer.
There are many different ways to make a single 'construction'....few are standard. For example, we make a Blake construction that is every bit as flexible as Bologna by simply eliminating the mid-sole, using a pre-flexed, soft insole and using Piper (soft calf) uppers. Any manufacturer can do this.
The Japanese site is very good in regards to the diagrams...I like the fact that they differentiate between 'Norwegian' and 'Norvegese' by showing an insole with a nib and a heavier insole that is stitched directly, and calling them different constructions. Of course, you never know which method a manufacturer will use.
Really, we can 'label' a construction anything we want....it's sort of like size - it's whatever we say it is. For example, the Santoni site describes 'Goodyear' like no other I know. Most would call this 'Norwegian'. I have never seen Goodyear where the upper is turned out, and a defining characteristic of all Goodyear constructions (whether hand or machine) is the 'hidden' stitch tying the welt to the upper assembly. In the Santoni diagram there is no welt!
For a better understanding of how these machines are used, look at this website and you can see how a manufacturer can choose options of a particular machine to make a type of shoe they wish to produce.http://www.zism.cz/index.php?doc=174...TED%20FOOTWEAR