There's no conclusion out there on NSAIDs and muscle growth.
^This is the study that frequently gets quoted when it comes to this issue. My first thoughts are -- 1. these are in mice, not humans, and 2. the study was over 2 weeks, and 3. the equivalent doses for a human would be very high. Not sure how applicable it is to us. There's some bench-based evidence that it might interfere with protein synthesis. But, this isn't a slamdunk on NSAIDs. In fact, there's a couple studies out there that suggest the opposite effect:
^In this one, grandpas made all kindzzzzz of gains. This obviously has some limitations being in older adults rather than athletes.
In practice, we frequently prescribe NSAIDs for musculoskeletal pain and nobody seems to be worried about the potential effects on muscle growth.
As with every medicine, take them in moderation. Taking them once in a while for bad pain is obviously fine(as was in your situation). It's the folks who take them daily for DOMS who might run into trouble. I certainly wouldn't ban NSAIDs from my medicine cabinet.