There is no difference in structural integrity between different types of welts used in Goodyear-welted shoes. They are all attached at the inseam in the same manner. Split-reverse welts are sometimes touted as being a bit more weather resistant. However, all they really add is a few millimeters of additional height that may help prevent some water entry when walking on wet surfaces (which can be valuable). A true storm welt does butt up more tightly against the leather upper, creating a better seal than a split-reverse welt, but even it is only providing a marginal amount of additional weather resistance.
To really increase weather resistance (supposedly), you have to move beyond Goodyear-welted shoes into Norwegian-welted (also called Goiser), Veldtschoen, or Bentivegna constructed shoes. These are still welted shoes, and are every bit as durable as Goodyear-welted shoes, but they use some different methods for how the uppers are wrapped, where the stitching is placed (additional rows of waxed stitching), etc. Sorry the image below is in Japanese, but it's one of the better diagrams. The names are in English, if you care to research them further, and you can click on them for a larger view. There are a couple of other methods diagrammed in the below pictures that don't fit into the "more weather resistant" discussion (stitch-down, Norvegese, and regular Norwegian (non-Norwegian-welted)).
What would we do without you MoneyWellSpent! Your knowledge, and willingness to freely take time out of your day to share that knowledge is amazing... and much appreciated!