Not a guide to relative to durability, but this is a handy visual key to fabric weaves and designs
The other good place to start is the discussion of weaves' properties in Villarosa and Angeli's The Elegant Man: How to Construct the Ideal Wardrobe
(1992). Lots of color photographs of weaves and designs, with helpful discussion of their wear properties.
It seems like you know the basics--all else equal, suiting twills like serge or pick-and pick are generally tougher than plain weaves, cavalry twills or whipcords generally tougher than serge or pick-and-pick, heavier fabrics generally tougher than lighter, 3x3 is generally tougher than 2x2 which is generally tougher than 2x1 . Beyond that, it comes down a lot of inter-related factors--what kind of yarn was used, how much it was twisted, how did they weave it, is it tight woven, how did they finish it.
Just to show how much durability is down to a wide variety of factors, there are now plenty of super light, super high Super cloths (i.e. very fine yarns) on the market that wear hard. JeffreyD had a post on a 20 year old Super 150s that had held up well
.Edited by Testudo_Aubreii - 7/13/16 at 12:17pm