Cost: You'd have to divide this into two categories - cost to produce and retail price. Welted shoes with a hand carved feather and Norvegese are the most difficult/expensive to produce, followed by machine welted, then blake-rapid, then blake. As for retail prices - that depends entirely on the brand name and retailer, for instance, you have Rider's Shell cordovan Norwegians selling for around $600, vs. Blake stitched Berluti's going for double that price... Sturdiness - Norvegese usually has a double or triple sole and is therefore the sturdiest, followed by welted shoe, then blake rapid, then blake. waterproof - Norvegese shoes are the most waterproof, then welted shoes and blake-rapid shoes, with blake stitched shoes being the least water resistant, especially if the soles are not channeled. In reality though, I'm not likely to wear any of my high-end dress shoes in anyhting more than a drizzle, so this is not really an issue. I've a few pair of midrange shoes to take care of that duty... difficulty/cost of resoling - welted shoes are going to be the easiest. I don't know about Blake or blake rapid, I would guess they would take some specialized training/equipment. Norvegese shoes would probably be the most difficult to resole and would likely have to be sent back to the original manufacturer. On the flip side, Norvegese shoes generally have very thick soles - add toe/heel protectors and you may never have to resole them. thinness of the sole - blake shoes can have the thinnest soles. Blake rapid and welted shoes should be tied for second, but in my experience, welted shoes with a single sole generally have a thinner sole than a blake rapid shoe. Norvegese are usually the thickest. Some comments based on personal preferences and observations: Norvegese refers to a specific sort of shoe construction - there are all sorts of different ways to reverse-welt a shoe and they all have different names. See this thread.
You will probaly end up as confused as I was... I prefer welted shoes personally. Perhaps it has to do with the shape of my foot, but the soles of Blake and Blake rapid shoes tend to 'round' when I wear them, they don't have the torsional rigidity of a welted shoe. The welted shoes hold their shape better, yet when broken in, a welted shoe with a single sole develops a wonderful 'feel' to the sole, almost like a moccasin. Not clunky at all. I have also had trouble with section of blake rapid shoes that corresponds to the externally visible section of the welt on a welted shoe - the sort of rim extending around the shoe when looking at it from the top, or on the foot. This area can pull away from the upper on some blake rapid shoes as there is some distance from the internal blake-stitch and the external blake-rapid stitch, and the sole is held to the upper in between by adhesive. The bond can break, which is unsightly to me. I have no problem wearing blake shoes, but am not willing to pay as much for them as I would for a quality welted shoe. IMO many Italian brands who sell blake shoes are rather overpriced - Tanino Crisci, Barrett, etc. The main advantage of the different Norwegian constructions to me is aesthetics, they look great on some models.